When you look from outside, all you do is, type a web address (say hostlater.com) using your browser and it opens a web page. That’s it! But there is a fantastic process behind this using Domain Name System (DNS). DNS takes a name like hostlater.com and translates it into an IP address to find content on the web. You can check this video below where DNS explained in simple english.
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participating entities. (via Wikipedia)
DNS Explained in Simple English
Domain Name System (DNS) is not the only thing, there are Resolving Name Server, the Root Name Server, the TLD Name Server and and the Authoritative Name Server.